Five Types vs Clean Energy. Nuclear Energy
By Pablo Ramírez Torrejón, PD.
In Chile, because of its geography has the advantage of being produced by industry and supplies throughout the territory of clean energy. This type of clean energy has five bases such as:
Biomass, Wind, Solar, Hydro and Tidal (OCEAN ENERGIES).
Friends will give you definitions of the five types of clean energy:
BIOMASS ENERGY. is known as biomass energy to the whole organic matter of vegetable or animal origin, including materials from natural or artificial processing.
1. Forest residues from various silvicultural treatments such as thinning, pruning or cleaning brush.
2. Agricultural residues of different pruning woody crops such as olives and vines and orchards. Also residues of cereal crops such as rye, corn, wheat, sorghum or rice and even use waste from other arable crops such as snuff, sugar beet, cotton and sunflower.
3. Forest industry waste, mostly from wood processing industries, wood veneer, cork or paper.
4. Biodegradable waste from agro-farming and agricultural industries and also from urban activity, among which the biogas from wastewater treatment plants and urban solid waste.
5. Energy crops and biofuels. The exploitation of plant biomass resources has traditionally been used and is becoming increasingly important for its economic potential, as there are significant annual volume of agricultural production, whose products can be used as a source of energy and even and are promoting the so-called energy crops, specifically for this purpose.
Many industries already use these resources as agricultural processing, especially oil refineries, brick and cement.
Energy crops are used for motor fuels. With proper utilization of agricultural residues, forestry and livestock could increase the use of these resources.
In Andalusia, mainly uses biomass derived from olive mill and a lower proportion of slurry from pig farms, which in both cases pose an important environmental problem.
In today's complex world, the environment is no longer just an abstract concept of significance for environmentalists. The degradation of grassland, forest clearance, depletion of agricultural and marine resources is a reality.
The growing need for energy to meet cities and industries are increasingly thirsty for fuel is an irreversible process.
The essence of this study lies in the conversion of one form of energy into another, or transformation of carbon dioxide into organic matter.
The main objective is to demonstrate concretely that the use of natural resources on a renewable, sustainable, environmentally and economically feasible without degrading the environment.
Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is a major source of solar energy collection, stored in biomass. It is also one of the species better adapted to marginal ecological conditions, which is interesting for the use of cochineal crop waste as animal food delicious, the production of energy and humus.
The use of wind as an energy source has the disadvantage of requiring a series of site conditions that significantly restrict the dissemination of this system, although technological innovation means that today is an internationally competitive model for the commercial generation electricity.
The coast of Almeria and the Strait of Gibraltar are Spanish areas with greater potential, because there are generated speeds up to 8.5 m / s, higher than those considered unfit to get a good economic performance.
In 1970 the first prototypes were installed and now Andalusia has the largest wind farm in commercial power generation in Europe, thanks to 74Mw of installed power.
According to a report commissioned by Greenpeace, the European Wind Energy Association and the Forum for Energy and Development, 10 percent of the world's electricity could be wind in 2020 and 1,700,000 to create jobs and reduce global emissions CO2 by more than 10,000 million tonnes.
In 1999, wind energy source was the fastest growing in the world, with average growth of 40.2% worldwide in 1994-1998 and 10,000 MW of installed capacity in over 50 countries, led by Denmark
Germany and Spain. Wind power provided nearly 10% of the electricity needs in Denmark, but at the global level is only 0.15%. The report notes the important role of Spain in the global wind power: Of the 10,153 MW installed worldwide at the end of 1998, 880 MW were in Spain, which ranks third in Europe and fifth in the world.
The technical potential of wind energy in Spain is equivalent to about half the total electricity consumption, so our country could easily cover 20% of consumption with wind power (current technical limit). The average growth rate in Spain in the last 3 years was 87.7%, the largest in the world. The global average was 27%.
The premiums for electricity from wind power have been key to the growth experienced in Germany, Denmark, Holland, Sweden and Spain.
To reach 10%, the report calls on governments to: establish firm objectives, to eliminate barriers inherent in the electricity sector, to stop subsidies to fossil and nuclear fuels, and introduce a series of legal mechanisms to support economically and prioritize the entry of wind power in the market.
It involves collecting the sun's energy through solar panels and convert it into heat.
The heat collected in the collectors can be used to meet many needs. For example, you can get hot water for domestic or industrial consumption, or to provide heating to homes, hotels, schools or factories. Also, you can get cool during the warm season.
In agriculture you can get other applications such as solar greenhouses favored improvements in crop quality and quantity of agricultural dryers consume far less energy when combined with a solar system, and desalination plants or water purification without consuming any fuel.
The sun has been a constant source of energy through the evolution of humanity and in different areas of activity that man has developed, such as agriculture, urban or industrial.
But to get a full use has been necessary to apply a series of feedback systems that have developed as technology advanced. This energy has the advantage of its high energy quality, its low environmental impact and long duration.
The disadvantages are due to come into the land of well dispersed and can not be stored directly. Spain, for its privileged location and climate, is particularly favored compared to other European countries, as on every square meter of land per year affecting about 1,500 kilowatt-hours of energy.
Depending on how the collection of solar radiation, we get heat and electricity. The heat is achieved by thermal collectors, and electricity through the photovoltaic modules. Both processes have nothing to do with each other, or in terms of its technology or its implementation. Photovoltaic solar energy. The sun's energy is collected in solar panels and converted into electricity.
This application is based on the photovoltaic effect occurs when light strikes a semiconductor material, generating a flow of electrons inside the material, and under appropriate conditions, a potential difference that can be exploited with multiple applications such as electricity, both domestic and public services. It is especially important for isolated places, farms or villages.
Can also be applied in agriculture, not only electrification but also in water pumping systems, irrigation, cleaning ... etc. Solar cells are also used in calculators, watches and toys.
In signaling and communication can develop a very important role in both air and maritime navigation, as well as roads and railways, radio and TV repeaters, mobile phones, satellites or special applications such as oxygenation of water and electric vehicles.
One of the most important quantitatively in the structure of renewable energy is coming from hydroelectric plants and is also a clean and indigenous energy source.
These resources nature offers us the free, you just have to build the infrastructure needed to exploit the potential available with zero cost of fuel. Within these facilities are very important for small power plants, they do not need large reservoirs regulators and lead to lower environmental impact.
Small hydro is considered, this hydroelectric facility with an installed capacity exceeding 10,000 KVA.
These small plants require a facility to transform the potential energy of a water course in energy available.
The manner of its implementation are classified into central flowing, foot of the dam, and central irrigation pipes or supply.
The problem with this type of energy is dependent on weather conditions. In Andalusia, Spain, for example, production is irregular due to the strong drought periods occur, so there is a need to build mini power plants in specific areas.
The energy that comes from the waves and tides. The idea and the Egyptians had, but now that technology dominates all spheres of human action, the energy from waves and tides has become a clean alternative to which he still has some steps in the investigation.
Water is already for years a source of energy. But the latest in renewable energy also has to do with water. Called tidal and is achieved through the waves and tides.
As we use the push of the wind for wind energy, the force with moving waves can also generate electricity. In this case, the instruments that gather momentum are ocean tidal power stations.
The idea is centuries old. Since ancient times is known this technique, already applied to move the tide mills Egyptians. In the thirteenth century and some wheels tidal worked in England and in the eighteenth century displayed various facilities for grinding grain and spices in France and the United States.
The first tests took place in France in 1799, but until the early 70's of last century did not come the first projects. A plant must be installed in a tidal estuary, bay or estuary where the water enters the sea.
In addition, you can only build a tidal power plant in places with a difference of at least five feet between the high and low tide. Thus, water enters the dam, where the power station with turbines or huge fans whose motion enacts the generator that produces electricity.
At low tide, the water leaves the dam turbines spinning. Experts are already talking about that tidal energy is the renewable technology following the market and will, without doubt, a natural complement to our strong capacity by wind farms.
In fact, projects are underway in Europe add points to the achievement of the objectives set by the Kyoto Protocol. For example, the plant being built in Santona (Cantabria) is based on the use of the oscillation of the waves?? Between one and five meters in this area?? and renewable power could supply about 1,500 families in this county.
Meanwhile, research continues to reduce the environmental impact of these plants and to improve methods of obtaining energy.
The United States has just developed a new technique called seadog, which consists of a series of pipes devouring waves, which sends a deposit on land, where, using a technology similar to that of a hydroelectric plant, is generated power. Then the water is returned to the sea. This system could generate energy even at very low wave height.
CENTRAL. The use of tidal energy is not widespread. So far only India, China, Japan and the U.S. have built some of these plants. In Europe geographical conditions are suitable to adapt this type of plant, for example in the North Sea and Scandinavian coasts. The Scottish island of Islay turbine has the first European who works with the movement of waves to generate power for 400 homes. IN SPAIN.
The Cantabrian will be the place where you tested the first tidal power stations in Spain, in Mutriku (Vizcaya) and Santoña (Cantabria). The first run with 16 turbines that compress air to enter the water in them, and the rotation of the turbine power is obtained. The second power plant consists of buoys.
In addition to the marine, the sea contains more sources of energy such as ocean thermal and energy flows, which also have their own processing plants.
This post has an important support MundoEnergía.com, Energy disclosed on the Internet.
Pablo Ramírez Torrejón (PD)