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One of the priorities to develop food products from soybeans is to choose the right variety and avoid aged seeds
Soy , a plant belonging to the legume family , comes from " Glycine ussuriensis , another wild species native to China, Japan and Indochina , where the conditions of optimum temperature for growth ( between 20 º C and 30 º C). The seeds have various applications: preparation of oil or food production for human consumption . His condition foodhealthy soy has made the basis for developing a variety of products, from milk to soybeans or tempeh. All require a particular process that begins with choosing the most appropriate variety of soybean .
Not all soybeans are suitable to produce food. They must have a specific composition : 45% should be protein and 25% oil. The protein is rich in essential amino acids and isoflavones , and also has a low activity of lipoxygenase , an enzyme responsible for its particular flavor. The development of soybean oil , however , is more complex and more expensive than the usual processes , which use olive oil or sunflower. It should be noted also that the process soybeans can be made by hydrogenation, a system that involves the presence of trans fatty acids .
soybean varieties for human consumption should be stored under strict conditions so as not to alter its composition. The higher the temperature , the lower the amount of protein. It is therefore essential to maintain the plant to a suitable temperature before treating . Another problem is the aging of the grain , which is found because the color darkens , it absorbs less water , increases its acidity and the protein is denatured. All these factors impact negatively on the products to be prepared after that will have a darker color, lower pH and milder flavor.
The most important for developing food products from soybeans is to choose the right variety and avoid aged seeds , determining the amount of oil of the variety for a higher content of protein and use a high quality oil . If using peeled soybeans should be avoided after heat treatments to optimize the final result. It is necessary to improve the color fading of the final product and not peeling the seeds ( this prevents a large amount of dust in the process.) In short , you get no quality products if the raw material is not.
If the raw material is not quality , products which are prepared from soybeans will be neither
fermented products can be developed , such as soy sauce or Temphase or fermented products , such as soy beverages or tofu, Among others. One of the most common is the drink of soy, which begins with the soaking development to increase the subsequent extraction of nutrients. In addition, during this process is to soften the cell structure is to extract more and reduce ground time later. The exact time depends on the soaking temperature, the seed variety and age. A very wrinkled skin is synonymous with that has been left to soak too long , a process after which the heavier seed and total solids content rises about 90 %.
The next step is the grinding of the seed, which gives just the right grain for a shorter warm-up back and an easier removal of solids. Currently, methods are applied hot ground to reduce the cooking time and to give the peculiar flavor of soy. Moreover, as the temperature increases , so does performance , improved grain storage and later facilitate the removal of liquids. However, excessive temperatures destroys essential amino acids and decreases the final product quality .
At this point we performed the extraction of fluid from the grain, which is performed by pressure filtration. This phase will also eliminate the insoluble solids. The correct extraction efficiency depends on the pressure , the time of this pressure and filter. Once the extraction is carried out fiber separation by decantation, a process in which, naturally , the sediments are separated. Then he proceeds to deodorization , used to eliminate odors by venting to vacuum.
When the liquid is clean and ready, adjusting the protein content. The final price and quality depend on the rich in protein. To determine this amount , add more or less water in the extraction stage : the higher the number , the lower the concentration. Similarly, the lower the amount of water , the higher the protein concentration . After the formulation is made , which decides the degree of taste and add a little oil for a richer food and creamy. It is also possible to enrich the product with calcium, Fiber , antioxidants , vitamins and minerals , among others. Finally, to emulsify the final suspension and improve their palatability, is conducting a homogenization. The end result is a drink with an excellent source of protein more digestible , rich in vitamins and minerals , no cholesterol or lactose and isoflavones. In short, an alternative drink for people intolerant or allergic reactions.
Soybean oil is obtained from the seed pod, but not all varieties are used for this purpose. The non- oil processing by-products , since it takes almost all the food. From the selected seeds are cleaned by different methods , in most cases water , and peel them with tools for this purpose . seeds are crushed and put to poaching . When the optimum temperature is reached , begins oil extraction using solvents . On the one hand , oil is obtained and, secondly , the soybean meal. After extraction , you get the soybean oil, a food rich in polyunsaturated fatty unrefined (although in some cases can be refined) . You have to keep in the fridge and should never be eaten if odors are detected .